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The first 90 第一個90

(added on 2018/11/26)

©2018 SpatioEpi.com
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group


1st December is World AIDS Day. The theme in 2018 is "know your HIV status". The theme is directly related to the UNAIDS 2020 goal, the 90-90-90. It is set to achieve the target of at least 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) know their status (1st 90), at least 90% of PLHIV who know their status are on treatment (2nd 90), and at least 90% of those on treatment are virally suppressed (3rd 90) by 2020.

The big map shows the achievement of 1st 90 among countries as of 2016. Seven countries have achieved the 1st 90 and are in green and outlined in black. Countries close to achieving the 1st 90 are in light green. However, 1st 90 (black outlines) achievers were not necessarily achieving the 2nd 90 and 3rd 90 (two small maps). By 2016, only Sweden and Denmark achieved the three 90s.

To achieve 1st 90, scaling up HIV testing is essential. A number of options are available: voluntary counseling and testing in clinics/institutes, community-based testing, self-testing, and multi-disease testing. At risk of HIV infection? In doubt? Get tested!

Data for the maps were extracted from UNAIDS.

每年的12月1日是世界愛滋病日。2018年的主題是 "知道自己的愛滋病毒感染狀況"。這與聯合國愛滋病規劃署的2020年90-90-90目標有直接的關係。 90-90-90目標是指2020年各地方可達: 最少90%愛滋病感染者知道自己被感染 (第一個90) 、他們當中最少90%接受治療(第二個90) 及最少90%接受治療的人血液中的病毒成功受壓制 (第三個90) 。

大地圖顯示各國家2016年第一個90的達標情況。綠色粗黑框線的七個國家是已經達到第一個90的目標。淺青色的地方則是接近達標的國家。但是,第一個90達標的國家(粗黑框線)並不一定達到第二個及第三個90 (兩個細圖)。截至2016年,只有瑞典及丹麥達到三個90。

為達第一個90,擴展愛滋病測試是必須的。現在有很多測試選項: 在診所/機構接受自願諮詢和檢測、在社群接受測試、自我檢測和多項病毒測試。有感染愛滋病病毒的風險?有懷疑? 做測試啦!


Related Article

HIV infection 人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染

What is HIV/ AIDS? 什麼是人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染/愛滋病?

  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system, destroying or impairing their function. In the early stages of infection, there is no symptom. As HIV infection progresses, the immune system becomes weaker, thereby increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections.
  • The most advanced stage of HIV infection is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the absence of treatment, 50% of the infected individuals progress to AIDS. The use of antiretroviral drugs can reverse the immune deficiency.
  • 人類免疫力缺乏病毒(HIV)是一種感染人類免疫細胞,從而破壞人體免疫系統的反轉病毒。在感染初期,患者可以完全沒有任何病癥。但在感染後期,患者的免疫力會被削弱,容易被其它機會性感染影響。
  • 愛滋病(後天免疫力缺乏症候群) 是人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染的後期嚴重階段。在沒有接受治療的情況下,平均一半感染者在十年內發病,成為愛滋病患者。抗病毒藥物治療可以有效恢復患者免疫能力。

How does HIV spread? 如何傳播?

  • HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse (heterosexuals and homosexuals), transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, sharing of contaminated needles in injection drug users, and between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
  • HIV的傳播途徑包括不安全性接觸 (異性及同性) ,輸入受污染血液或血制品、靜脈吸毒者共用針筒、和母嬰傳播(懷孕、分娩、和哺乳期間)。

Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?

  • A safe and effective vaccine is still under development. The practice of safer sex with the use of condom is one most effective means of preventing HIV infection through sex. Avoidance of needle sharing is important in injection drug users, whereas antiretroviral treatment can be effective in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.
  • 預防疫苗至今仍在研究中。現時最有效的預防性傳播方法是採用安全性行為,包括使用安全套。吸毒者應避免共同使用針具,而抗病毒藥物則可以有效預防母嬰傳播。

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