Data source: Public Health England
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group
Through the universal vaccination programme, the United Kingdom has achieved elimination status for measles in 2016. This does not, however, mean that measles has disappeared in this country. Since late 2017, measles outbreaks were confirmed in five areas of England. The map shows the distribution of the affected areas and the coverage of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination at 2 years of age in the second quarter of 2017 in England.
As indicated by the red asterisk, measles outbreaks took place in West Midlands, West Yorkshire, Cheshire & Liverpool, Surrey and Greater Manchester. As depicted by graduated colours, coverage of MMR vaccines in the neighborhood of the affected areas was generally lower than that in the other parts of England. Apparently, communities with low MMR vaccination coverage are vulnerable to measles, even in a country with an overall high vaccine uptake.
Measles and other childhood infections are global health problems. To encourage people to take collective effort to increase immunisation coverage for the greater good, World Immunization Week 2018 is observed from 24 - 30 April.
Data for the map were obtained from Public Health England.
What is measles? 什麼是麻疹?
Measles is a highly infectious disease caused by Measles virus. Incubation period usually ranges from 7 to 18 days.
Affected persons present initially with cold-like symptoms, such as runny nose, sneezing and cough. Other early symptoms include fever, sore and red eyes and small greyish-white spots in the mouths. These are followed 3 to 7 days later by red-brown blotchy rash, which usually spreads from the head or upper neck to the rest of the body.
The infection usually clears in around 7 to 10 days, and lifelong immunity will be developed. Serious complications like pneumonia and encephalitis do occur, and could cause death especially in children under the age of 5.
How does it spread? 如何傳播?
Measles virus can be spread by droplets that come out of the nose and mouth from an infected person during coughing or sneezing. The virus can also be transmitted by direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected persons, or articles soiled with nasal or throat secretions. An infected person can be infectious from the time of symptoms development until about four days after appearance of the rash.
Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?
There is no specific treatment for measles, but vaccination is effective to prevent the disease. Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine can be administered by injection for immunisation against measles. Children should follow the recommended schedule of local childhood immunisation programme for vaccination.
Further information 詳細資料