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Yellow fever upsurge in Brazil 巴西黃熱再起

(added on 2018/01/30)

©2018 SpatioEpi.com
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group


In Brazil, after a major yellow fever outbreak ending in September 2017, there has been an upsurge in the last weeks of the year continuing through January 2018. Between 1 July 2017 and 24 January 2018, 130 confirmed human cases (including 53 deaths) and 453 non-human primates (NHP) epizootics were reported. More cases are under investigation. The map shows the distribution of reported human cases and NHP epizootics (confirmed cases and cases under investigation) in Brazil in the period. Sao Paulo state has the highest reported number of BOTH human cases and NHP epizootics, followed by Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro.

From conservative estimates in a study published in Lancet (Shearer et al, 2017), 40.3 million individuals living in Brazil at-risk districts in 2016 have yet to be vaccinated against yellow fever so as to achieve 80% vaccination coverage. In early February, Carnival of Brazil will begin in famous places including Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Pernambuco. Unvaccinated international travelers joining the carnival in Brazil might be at risk of infection. In January 2018, an imported case was reported in the Netherlands with traveling history in Brazil. Vaccination before traveling (at least 10 days in advance) to Brazil could be an effective way of prevention, as recommended by WHO. For more information, please check http://www.who.int/ith/updates/20180116/en/

繼巴西2017年黃熱病爆發於9月平息後,年底至2018年1月又有新一輪爆發。 2017年7月1 日至2018年1月24日期間,共有130例確診人類病例(包括53例死亡)和453非人類靈長類動物(NHP)爆發報告,仍有更多在調查中。地圖顯示人類病例和NHP爆發報告(確診和調查) 在巴西的分佈。聖保羅州的人類病例以及NHP爆發報告數目都是最多,其次是米納斯吉拉斯和里約熱內盧。

根據一篇在《刺針》發表的研究文獻所作保守估計(Shearer等, 2017),巴西的黃熱病高危地區於2016年仍有4030萬人需要接種疫苗,以達致80%的覆蓋率。二月初,巴西即將舉行狂歡節。熱門地點包括里約熱內盧、巴伊亞州和伯南布哥州。 從世界各地到巴西參加狂歡節但沒有接種黃熱病疫苗的旅客有一定的感染風險。 2018年1月荷蘭有一例輸入性 病例,患者曾到過巴西。根據世界衛生組織的建議,到巴西旅行前(至少10天前)接種疫苗是一種有效的預防方法。如欲了解更多資訊,請瀏覽http://www.who.int/ith/updates/20180116/en/

Related Article

Yellow Fever 黃熱病

What is yellow fever? 什麼是黃熱病

  • Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne infectious disease endemic in tropical and subtropical Africa and South America. Common symptoms of yellow fever include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting and fatigue. Some 15% of patients may develop severe symptoms such as high fever, jaundice, bleeding and multiple organ failure, of which around half die within a week. At the moment there is no effective anti-viral treatment for yellow fever.
  • 黃熱病是一種於熱帶及亞熱帶非洲及南美洲流行而經蚊傳播的傳染病。感染後常見病徵包括發燒、 頭痛 、肌肉疼痛、惡心、嘔吐及疲勞。當中15%患者會發展嚴重症狀包括高燒、黃痘、出血及器官衰竭。其中一半嚴重病患者一周內死亡。現時沒有針對黃熱病之抗病毒藥物。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

  • Yellow fever virus is spread through the bite of mosquitoes from the Aedes and Haemogogus genus, primarily Aedes aegypti. The common Aedes albopictus in Hong Kong and Macao could also be the vector for transmitting yellow fever.
  • 黃熱病病毒主要是經被帶有病毒的伊蚊及趨血蚊叮後而傳播 (主要是埃及伊蚊),香港及澳門常見的白紋伊蚊亦可作為其蚊媒。

Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?

  • Yellow fever is vaccine preventable. Travellers planning on travelling to the endemic countries should be vaccinated 11 days before arrival. The protective effect of vaccination is generally valid for 10 years. Other preventive measures are mosquito controls and personal preventive measures, including the use of insect repellents and wearing protective clothing.
  • 疫苗注射可以預防黃熱病。前往黃熱病疫區之人士需於到埗前十一日預先接種疫苗。疫苗效力可維持十年。其他預防方法包括蚊蟲控制及個人防護措施,如使用蚊怕水及穿著個人防護衣物。

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