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Emergence of mosquito-borne infections 突如其來的新蚊患

(added on 2016/02/04)

©2016 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group


On 1st February 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) declared “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” in response to the recent emergence of neurological disorders and neonatal malformations in South America, for which a causal linkage between the mosquito-borne Zika virus disease and the cases is highly suspected. Zika virus is transmitted through the bites of Aedes mosquitoes, which have been known to cause other infections. The map shows the geographical distributions of actively transmitting Zika virus and 4 other Aedes-transmitted diseases, namely Dengue fever, Yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and West Nile virus infections. These diseases are mostly found in tropical and subtropical region, where sufficient temperature and moisture favour the breeding of Aedes mosquitoes. Of these, dengue is currently most widely spread around the world. Yellow Fever is concentrated in countries in Africa and South America, while Chikugunya prevails in South East Asia, Africa and South America. West Nile virus infection is most commonly reported in USA. Currently most of Zika virus infections came from South America, and the number of countries reporting new cases has continued to rise.

Other than designing vaccines against Zika virus, scientists are studying the deployment of genetically-modified mosquitoes to restrict the growth of risky mosquitoes. Nevertheless, preventive measures at personal level are the most effective way to prevent these mosquito-borne diseases.

Data for this map were derived from statistics from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA



Related Article

Zika Virus 寨卡病毒

What is Zika virus? 什麼是寨卡病毒

  • Zika virus is the cause of a mosquito-borne infectious disease. Common symptoms of Zika virus disease include fever, rash, joint pain and conjunctivitis. The illness is usually mild and seldom requires hospitalization. In May 2015, multiple birth defects of new-born babies, including microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported in Brazil. It is highly suspected that Zika virus is the causative agent of such outbreaks. It is therefore a new concern for pregnant women who may be exposed to the virus.
  • 寨卡病毒感染是一種以蚊傳播的傳染病。感染後常見病徵包括發燒、皮疹、肌肉或關節疼痛及結膜炎。寨卡病毒引發的病徵一般輕微,只有少數病者需要留院治療。於2015年5月,巴西出現多宗初生嬰兒畸形包括俗稱『小頭症』及吉巴氏綜合症,同期爆發的寨卡病毒極大可能為其致病原因。寨卡病毒為疫症地區孕婦帶來新的憂慮。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

  • Zika virus is spread through the bite of mosquitoes from the Aedes genus, primarily Aedes aegypti. The common Aedes albopictus in Hong Kong and Macao could also be the vector for transmitting Zika virus. Recent research also suggests that the virus could be transmitted through sexual contact.
  • 寨卡病毒主要是經被帶有病毒的埃及伊蚊叮後而傳播的傳染病,香港及澳門常見的白紋伊蚊亦可作為其蚊媒。近期研究亦指出病毒有機會經性接觸傳播。

Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?

  • Currently there is no vaccine to protect from Zika virus. The best measure is to minimise the breeding grounds of the Aedes mosquitoes by for example sealing up puddles of stagnant water, and avoiding mosquito bites, for example through the use of insect repellent and mosquito nets.
  • 目前仍未有有效防止寨卡病毒感染的疫苗。預防措施的重點首是減少伊蚊繁殖的地方,包括清除積水防止蚊子滋生,以及避免被蚊子叮咬,例如使用驅蚊劑和蚊帳。

Related maps 相關地圖

Other resources 其他資訊

Further information 詳細資料

  • Zika virus infection, CHP
  • Zika virus, WHO
  • Zika virus, CDC