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World AIDS Day 2012 - More efforts on HIV treatment 更多關注於愛滋治療

(added on 2012/11/30)

©2012 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases


While eradication of the causative virus for HIV/AIDS appears impossible, available treatment is very effective in restoring health and putting the infection under control. In the past, this form of treatment (also called highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART) was too expensive for a majority of patients.

The first map shows the distribution of published research reports on HAART in 2002, compared to that in 2012 (second map). There was a 26% increase in number from 916 to 1150, and 60% increase in spatial coverage. While USA and Europe continue to dominate the research field in the last decade, there have been increased efforts from Africa and South East Asia. In China, there was one report in 2002, rising to 28 in 2012. Recent research has shown that effective HAART can reduce HIV transmission. More efforts are needed to not just provide treatment but also optimize treatment in each country, so as to achieve maximum effectiveness.

Data for the maps were derived from search results at Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) using the following keywords - HAART or cART - with the exclusion of review articles, for year 2002 and 2012.


第一幅圖顯示2002年曾出版關於愛滋病治療研究報告的空間分佈,而第二幅圖則是2012年的分佈。相較於2002 ,2012年的報告數目由916增至1150份,上升了百分之26 ,而所涉地區也增加了百分之60。 過去十年,當美國及歐洲仍然是這類研究的主導地,非洲及東南亞也顯著增加這方面的研究。中國的報告量,亦由2002年的1份增至2012年的28份。最近有研究顯示有效的治療能降低愛滋病病毒傳播的機會。由此可見,提供治療固然重要,但投放多些資源及努力於有關治療的研究也十分重要,將有助優化治療方案和影響成效。

圖中所用的數據是從文獻搜尋器 Pubmed(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) 以關鍵字HAART或cART 於2002 及 2012 年列表中衍生出來,文獻回顧不在計算之內。

Related Article

HIV infection 人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染

What is HIV/ AIDS? 什麼是人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染/愛滋病?

  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system, destroying or impairing their function. In the early stages of infection, there is no symptom. As HIV infection progresses, the immune system becomes weaker, thereby increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections.
  • The most advanced stage of HIV infection is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the absence of treatment, 50% of the infected individuals progress to AIDS. The use of antiretroviral drugs can reverse the immune deficiency.
  • 人類免疫力缺乏病毒(HIV)是一種感染人類免疫細胞,從而破壞人體免疫系統的反轉病毒。在感染初期,患者可以完全沒有任何病癥。但在感染後期,患者的免疫力會被削弱,容易被其它機會性感染影響。
  • 愛滋病(後天免疫力缺乏症候群) 是人類免疫力缺乏病毒感染的後期嚴重階段。在沒有接受治療的情況下,平均一半感染者在十年內發病,成為愛滋病患者。抗病毒藥物治療可以有效恢復患者免疫能力。

How does HIV spread? 如何傳播?

  • HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse (heterosexuals and homosexuals), transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, sharing of contaminated needles in injection drug users, and between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
  • HIV的傳播途徑包括不安全性接觸 (異性及同性) ,輸入受污染血液或血制品、靜脈吸毒者共用針筒、和母嬰傳播(懷孕、分娩、和哺乳期間)。

Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?

  • A safe and effective vaccine is still under development. The practice of safer sex with the use of condom is one most effective means of preventing HIV infection through sex. Avoidance of needle sharing is important in injection drug users, whereas antiretroviral treatment can be effective in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.
  • 預防疫苗至今仍在研究中。現時最有效的預防性傳播方法是採用安全性行為,包括使用安全套。吸毒者應避免共同使用針具,而抗病毒藥物則可以有效預防母嬰傳播。

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