Opinion Poll 意見調查 Email Alert 電郵快訊


Story maps

Build our nations with fresh air 共建清新國度

(added on 2011/11/17)

©2011 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: WHO & International Energy Agency
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group


Apart from ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) is another common urban air pollutant. The map shows the mean annual exposure to PM10 in urban population and the proportion of fossil fuel used in national energy consumption.

As depicted by graduated colours, the concentration of PM10 in outdoor air was higher in Asian urban areas. Of these, some were from countries with high dependence on fossil fuel, as indicated by coloured symbols. According to World Health Organization guidelines, the air quality standard for annual average of PM10 is below 20 micrograms per cubic metre. Cities achieving this standard were however limited to those in North America, Oceania and a few countries in Europe. In addition to developing cleaner fuels, energy saving through lifestyle change and enforcing air quality regulations are two feasible ways to change the current situation.

The data for the map were obtained from World Health Organization and International Energy Agency.




Related Article

Particulate matter (PM) 懸浮粒子

Particulate matter represents a complex mixture of small particles and liquid droplets suspended in the air. Major sources of particulate matter include construction activities, road dust re-suspension and combustion.

Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 micrometres (μm) (PM10) is already small enough to pass through nose and respiratory tract and enter our lungs. Chronic exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, or even lung cancer. Those particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), also known as fine suspended particles, is especially harmful. It is one of the most important parameters for air pollution monitoring.

In Hong Kong, Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) was introduced to replace the late Air Pollution Index in December 2013 from Environmental Protection Department, HKSAR. Individuals with lung and heart disease, influenza, asthma, elderly people and children are sensitive to PM. They are advised to reduce physical exertion and outdoor activities and avoid prolonged stay in areas with heavy traffic when AQHI is at high health risk category or higher.


氣動力學直徑小於十微米的顆粒物可以經鼻腔及呼吸道進入肺部,長期暴露於此類可吸入顆粒物會增加患上心血管病、呼吸系統疾病甚至肺癌等風險。 其中小於2.5微米的懸浮粒子,亦稱微細懸浮粒子,尤其有害。它是衡量空氣污染指標的其一重要成份。

香港政府環境保護署於2013年12月以空氣質素健康指數代替舊有的空氣污染指數。心肺疾病、感冒或哮喘患者與及長者和小童都可能對可吸入顆粒物特別敏感,當空氣質素健康指數健康風險級別為高或以上水平時 ,他們都應減少體力消秏及戶外活動,亦應避免長時間在交通繁忙的街道上逗留以減少顆粒物的吸入數量。

Related maps 相關地圖

Other resources 其他資訊

Organisations 有關機構

Further information 詳細資料