Data source: Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group
Hepatitis B poses a major public health threat in China, where an estimated 7% of the population aged 1 - 59 is chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Between 2005 - 2009, the reported number of hepatitis B cases per 100000 population has increased by 18% in the country. The map shows the distribution of hepatitis B cases in 2009 and the changes over the preceding five years.
As depicted by graduated colours, north-western China reported the highest number of hepatitis B cases, in contrast with lower numbers in south-western and eastern China. As indicated by coloured arrows, hepatitis B cases clustered in western and southern China while a decrease can be seen in the east and Sichuan. To control HBV infections in China, strengthening the current vaccination programme is paramount, especially in rural areas and western regions. The first official WHO World Hepatitis Day is marked on 28th July 2011 to enhance public awareness and improve understanding of viral hepatitis, of which HBV is a major focus.
Data for the map was obtained from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China.
What is Hepatitis B? 什麼是乙型肝炎？
Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Acute infection can be asymptomatic, though rare cases of fulminant hepatitis may also occur. Over 90% of adults recover completely from HBV infection and do not become chronically infected, but children who have HBV infection are more likely to become a chronic carrier.
乙型肝炎是病毒性肝炎之一，由乙型肝炎病毒引起。急性感染者可以全無癥狀，但偶然發生罕見致命的嚴重肝炎 。一般而言受乙型肝炎病毒感染的成人中大約九成以上完全痊癒，並不會成為帶原者 。但若然兒童受乙型肝炎病毒感染的話，復康後成為帶原者機會較高。
How does it spread? 如何傳播？
The routes of Hepatitis B transmission are: Blood contact, perinatal transmission and sexual contact.
A complete course of hepatitis B vaccination normally takes a total of three injections. The second dose is normally given one month after the first one, and the third dose is given 5 months after the second one.
In China, the Ministry of Health has recommended the inclusion of hepatitis B vaccine in routine immunization of infants since 1992. However, hepatitis B vaccine coverage was low and limited to urban and high socioeconomic areas before the vaccine was integrated into the Expanded Programme on Immunization in 2002. Since May 2005, all infants are offered hepatitis B vaccinations at no charge to parents.
Through efforts on immunization in China, chronic hepatitis B diseases resulting from vertical transmission or infection during early childhood have decreased dramatically. The hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence in the population under 5 has fallen below 1%. However, unsafe sexual contact and the use of contaminated blood products remain the important routes for HBV infection among adults in China. The situation would improve when the long term impacts of universal childhood vaccination begin to be seen in the population.
Further information 詳細資料