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Hepatitis B in mainland China 正視中國大陸的乙型肝炎

(added on 2011/07/15)

©2011 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group

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Hepatitis B poses a major public health threat in China, where an estimated 7% of the population aged 1 - 59 is chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Between 2005 - 2009, the reported number of hepatitis B cases per 100000 population has increased by 18% in the country. The map shows the distribution of hepatitis B cases in 2009 and the changes over the preceding five years.

As depicted by graduated colours, north-western China reported the highest number of hepatitis B cases, in contrast with lower numbers in south-western and eastern China. As indicated by coloured arrows, hepatitis B cases clustered in western and southern China while a decrease can be seen in the east and Sichuan. To control HBV infections in China, strengthening the current vaccination programme is paramount, especially in rural areas and western regions. The first official WHO World Hepatitis Day is marked on 28th July 2011 to enhance public awareness and improve understanding of viral hepatitis, of which HBV is a major focus.

Data for the map was obtained from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China.

乙型肝炎為中國帶來嚴重的公共衛生問題,全國約百分之七人口是慢性乙型肝炎病毒帶原者。2005年至2009年間,中國每十萬人計的年度乙型肝炎病例數目增幅達百分之十八。地圖顯示全國各省的乙型肝炎病例分佈及該五年間的變化。

依地圖顏色所示,中國西北部的人口平均乙型肝炎數目最高。相對之下,西南部及東部地區的個案則較其他省份為低。顏色箭號標示中國乙型肝炎多集中於西部及南部,相反華東及四川等地的乙型肝炎病例則按年減少。要有效控制中國的乙型肝炎感染,必須改善疫苗接種規劃,而針對農村及西部地區至為重要。世界衛生組織已將7月28日訂為世界肝炎日,旨在提高公眾對病毒性肝炎的認知與關注,而乙型肝炎顯然是一個重點。

地圖數據源自中華人民共和國衛生部。

Related Article

Hepatitis B 乙型肝炎

For Hepatitis C, please click here.
丙型肝炎資訊,請按此

What is Hepatitis B? 什麼是乙型肝炎?

  • Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Acute infection can be asymptomatic, though rare cases of fulminant hepatitis may also occur. Over 90% of adults recover completely from HBV infection and do not become chronically infected, but children who have HBV infection are more likely to become a chronic carrier.

  • 乙型肝炎是病毒性肝炎之一,由乙型肝炎病毒引起。急性感染者可以全無癥狀,但偶然發生罕見致命的嚴重肝炎 。一般而言受乙型肝炎病毒感染的成人中大約九成以上完全痊癒,並不會成為帶原者 。但若然兒童受乙型肝炎病毒感染的話,復康後成為帶原者機會較高。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

  • The routes of Hepatitis B transmission are: Blood contact, perinatal transmission and sexual contact.

  • 乙型肝炎可以經血液、母嬰感染及性接觸傳播的疾病。

Vaccine? 疫苗?

  • A complete course of hepatitis B vaccination normally takes a total of three injections. The second dose is normally given one month after the first one, and the third dose is given 5 months after the second one.

  • 乙型肝炎疫苗一般需要注射三次,第一和第二次相隔一個月,第二和第三次注 射之間相隔五個月。


Hepatitis B vaccination in China 中國的乙型肝炎疫苗接種

In China, the Ministry of Health has recommended the inclusion of hepatitis B vaccine in routine immunization of infants since 1992. However, hepatitis B vaccine coverage was low and limited to urban and high socioeconomic areas before the vaccine was integrated into the Expanded Programme on Immunization in 2002. Since May 2005, all infants are offered hepatitis B vaccinations at no charge to parents.

Through efforts on immunization in China, chronic hepatitis B diseases resulting from vertical transmission or infection during early childhood have decreased dramatically. The hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence in the population under 5 has fallen below 1%. However, unsafe sexual contact and the use of contaminated blood products remain the important routes for HBV infection among adults in China. The situation would improve when the long term impacts of universal childhood vaccination begin to be seen in the population.

國家衛生部早於1992年已將乙肝疫苗接種納入兒童計劃免疫管理,但初期疫苗接種多只限於城區及其他經濟較發達的地區。2002年,乙型肝炎疫苗正式被納入擴大免疫規劃,鄉村及落後地區的疫苗接種覆蓋率才逐漸提升。自2005年5月起,所有國內出生的嬰孩均可免費接種乙型肝炎疫苗。

透過疫苗接種,國內經母體感染或於兒時受感染的慢性乙型肝炎患者已大為減少,五歲以下兒童的乙型肝炎表面抗原攜帶率已低於百分之一。不過,不安全的性行為及使用受污染的血製品令乙型肝炎病毒仍於成年人間廣泛傳播。這局面有待普及兒童免疫接種計劃長期實施後,全民的乙肝預防才得以保障。


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