Data source: World Health Organization
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group
Bats are the natural host and vector for a number of emerging zoonotic viruses (e.g. SARS coronavirus, Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)) that have circulated internationally. In South East Asia, Nipah virus is another source of similar infections the natural host of which is the fruit bat. People who have direct contact with infected animals or body fluid of infected people, or have drunk contaminated raw date palm sap could be at risk of infection.
In May 2018, a Nipah virus outbreak was reported in Kozhikode, India. By June 2018, 18 cases have been reported, giving a high mortality rate of 94%. The map shows the distribution of reported Nipah virus outbreaks in South and South East Asian countries. These countries are located within the hashed area, which covers the home range of fruit bats. Since 2001, Nipah virus outbreaks have been reported in India and Bangladesh only. The inset map shows the number of years that the 2 countries had reported Nipah virus outbreaks and their locations.
By now, there is no vaccine against the Nipah virus. Members of the public are advised not directly touch bats or pigs, or drink raw date palm sap, to reduce the risk of infection.
Data for the map were obtained from World Health Organization.
蝙蝠是幾種國際間新興人畜共患病毒 (如嚴重急性呼吸道綜合症冠狀病毒、伊波拉病毒、中東呼吸綜合症病毒) 的天然宿主及傳播媒介。南亞及東南亞地區的尼帕病毒，其天然宿主亦是果蝠。人若接觸已受尼帕病毒感染的動物或病人的體液、飲用一些受污染的椰棗原汁就會有感染機會。
Nipah virus infection is a zoonosis, a term referring to conditions caused by microorganisms transmissible between animals and humans. Its incubation period usually ranges from 4 to 14 days. However, the longest incubation period can be as long as 45 days.
Nipah virus infected persons could present with fever, headache, and muscle ache. Neurological features like drowsiness, disorientation and mental confusion my occur. Such symptoms and signs may persist for 3-14 days. In serious cases, progression to coma may occur within 24-28 hours following symptom onset. The mortality rate is between 40% and 75%.
How does it spread? 如何傳播?
Fruit bat is the natural host and vector of the Nipah virus. People who have direct contact with infected animals (e.g. pigs) or body fluid of infected people, have eaten or drunk contaminated food (e.g. raw date palm sap) are at risk of infection.
There is no vaccine for the Nipah virus so far. To reduce infection risk:
Do not contact bats and sick pigs.
Do not eat food which might have been bitten by bats
Avoid drinking raw date palm sap.
Wear proper protective clothing when coming into direct contact with infected animals (sick pigs) or people.
Further information 詳細資料