Data source: Public Health England
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group
In 2016, there were around 190,000 reported measles cases globally, while World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 7 million people were infected. The map shows the geographic distribution of reported measles cases in the 5 year period between 2013 and 2017. Among them, Southeast Asia and India gave higher rates of reported cases. In 2018, outbreaks were reported in Japan and Taiwan in the Asia Pacific. As measles can be efficiently transmitted in the air, spread of the virus through travelling caused concerns in neighboring countries
Comparing with other places, the annual number of reported measles cases in Hong Kong has been low at below 50, of which 50% did not occur at home but were “imported”. The small number of cases was a result of high measles vaccination coverage (above 95%) in Hong Kong. Most of the measles cases that had occurred were unvaccinated individuals, including infants aged below 1 year old, foreign domestic helpers, overseas students and migrants. The lines on the map show the origins of imported measles cases in Hong Kong over the years. Common places of origin included Mainland China, Philippines and Indonesia. Vaccination could be an effective prevention measure against measles. Before travelling to high burden cities/countries, one must ensure his/her own immune status against measles virus. In case of query, advice from doctor should be sought and if necessary, vaccination must be made 2 weeks in advance.
Data for the map were obtained from World Health Organization, Centre for Health Protection of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and Taiwan Centers for Disease Control.
現時香港每年的麻疹報告個案少於50宗，當中一半並非在香港受到感染，而是從外地『輸入』。香港的低感染情況主要歸功於高麻疹疫苗覆蓋率 (95%以上 )。大部分受感染者並沒有接種疫苗紀錄，例如不足1歲的嬰兒、外藉家庭傭工、留學生及新移民。地圖中的路線顯示香港往年的麻疹個案，主要是從中國大陸、菲律賓及印尼輸入。接種疫苗是有效預防麻疹的方法，計劃前往高感染地區前，應先考慮自己是否對麻疹免疫。如有疑問可向醫生查詢，並於出發前2星期接種疫苗。
What is measles? 什麼是麻疹?
Measles is a highly infectious disease caused by Measles virus. Incubation period usually ranges from 7 to 18 days.
Affected persons present initially with cold-like symptoms, such as runny nose, sneezing and cough. Other early symptoms include fever, sore and red eyes and small greyish-white spots in the mouths. These are followed 3 to 7 days later by red-brown blotchy rash, which usually spreads from the head or upper neck to the rest of the body.
The infection usually clears in around 7 to 10 days, and lifelong immunity will be developed. Serious complications like pneumonia and encephalitis do occur, and could cause death especially in children under the age of 5.
How does it spread? 如何傳播?
Measles virus can be spread by droplets that come out of the nose and mouth from an infected person during coughing or sneezing. The virus can also be transmitted by direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected persons, or articles soiled with nasal or throat secretions. An infected person can be infectious from the time of symptoms development until about four days after appearance of the rash.
Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?
There is no specific treatment for measles, but vaccination is effective to prevent the disease. Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine can be administered by injection for immunisation against measles. Children should follow the recommended schedule of local childhood immunisation programme for vaccination.
Further information 詳細資料