© 2016 SpatioEpi.com
Data sources: HPV information centre, Int. J. Cancer, Jpn J Clin Oncol and Chang Gung Med J
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmittable virus. Most HPV infections do not cause symptoms whilst several viral strains could lead to genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are of the most high risk genotypes within the HPV family. Currently there are vaccines that can prevent HPV. The bivalent, quadrivalent and 9-valent vaccines are protective against both HPV-16 and HPV-18. The new 9-valent HPV vaccine has an extended protective coverage to 7 other HPV types.
The map shows the crude incidence rate of cervical cancer and the prevalence ratio of HPV-16 and HPV-18 in countries in the Asia Pacific. A higher incidence rate is found in countries of south and south-east Asia. Generally prevalence of HPV-16 is much higher than HPV-18 in most of the countries. Currently HPV vaccine is not commonly used in most of the countries. Regular screening remains the most effective means to prevent cervical cancer. Implementation of a comprehensive cervical cancer screening programme carries important public health impacts, the coverage of which would directly influence the incidence rate of cervical cancer.
Data for this map were obtained from the HPV information centre, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Int. J. Cancer, Jpn J Clin Oncol and Chang Gung Med J.
資料源自加泰隆尼亞腫瘤學學院 HPV資訊中心, Int. J. Cancer, Jpn J Clin Oncol and Chang Gung Med J。
What is HPV? 什麼是人類乳頭瘤病毒?
HPV is a DNA virus belonging to the papillomavirus family, which consists of over 150 types. Most of the virus types do not cause symptoms but some may cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancers. HPV-16 and HPV-18 account for 70% of all cervical cancer cases. Other high risk HPV types include 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 66.
How does it spread? 如何傳播?
HPV is spread primarily through sexual intercourse. People with an early age of sexual debut, having multiple partners, smokers and those with poor immune function are more prone to have persistent HPV infection and a higher risk of progressing to cervical cancer. Mother-to-child transmission, though uncommon, has also been observed.
Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?
HPV infection is vaccine preventable. Currently there are three available vaccines : Gardasil, Cervarix and Gardasil 9, which protect against 4, 2 and 9 HPV types respectively. Center for Diseases Control and Prevent of USA suggests that all boys and girls at age 11 and 12 should get vaccinated. Currently it is not included in the universal vaccination programme of Hong Kong, so citizens who wish to be vaccinated need to pay themselves. Practising safer sex can also reduce the risk of having HPV.
Further information 詳細資料