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ABC of hepatitis in China 中國的甲乙丙肝

(added on 2014/08/13)

©2014 SpatioEpi.com
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group

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Hepatitis virus is classified by types named after alphabets. Transmission routes differ from one virus to the other. The graph shows the distribution of the main forms of reported viral hepatitis per 100,000 population in China in 2012. Qinghai gave the highest prevalence (red area on map) for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, while Tianjin and Beijing were the lowest (green area on map). The highest prevalence of Hepatitis C was recorded in Xinjiang and the lowest in Xizang (Tibet), the latter also gave the lowest prevalence for Hepatitis E. Jiangsu was the province with the highest Hepatitis E prevalence.

Data for the map were extracted from China Public Health Statistical Yearbook 2013.

肝炎病毒以字母分類,而傳播途徑各有不同。地圖顯示2012年中國病毒性肝炎發病率於的分佈。青海是甲型、乙型肝炎發病率最高(圖中紅色地方)的省份,而最低發病率(圖中綠色地方)地區分別是天津及北京。最高丙型肝炎發病率的地區是新疆,最低在西藏。最低戊型肝炎發病率也在西藏,最高則在江蘇。

地圖資料源自《2013中國衛生統計年鑑》。

Related Article

Hepatitis A 甲型肝炎

What is Hepatitis A? 什麼是甲型肝炎?

Hepatitis A is an infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is an RNA virus. Infected adults usually present with acute viral hepatitis while children are mostly asymptomatic. The disease is often self-limiting though severe life-threatening fulminant hepatitis do occur occasionally. Recovered patients have lifelong immunity against HAV infection.

甲型肝炎是病毒性肝炎之一,由甲型肝炎病毒引起。甲型肝炎病毒是一種RNA病毒。大部份受感染的成年人出現急性肝炎,而小孩則沒有明顯病徵。一般甲型肝炎患者能自行痊癒,但少部份感染者發展成為嚴重致命肝炎。甲型肝炎病者復康後終生免疫。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

The main route of Hepatitis A transmission is faeco-oral, through drinking contaminated water, eating contaminated food without proper cooking, or close contact with infected people.

甲型肝炎是由腸道傳染?,主要通過飲用受污染的飲料、食用未經煮熟又受污染的食物,或親密接觸甲型肝炎患者。

Vaccine? 疫苗?

A complete course of hepatitis A vaccination normally takes 2 injections, 6-18 months apart.

甲型肝炎疫苗一般需要注射二次,相隔六至十八個月。


Hepatitis B 乙型肝炎

For Hepatitis C, please click here.
丙型肝炎資訊,請按此

What is Hepatitis B? 什麼是乙型肝炎?

  • Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Acute infection can be asymptomatic, though rare cases of fulminant hepatitis may also occur. Over 90% of adults recover completely from HBV infection and do not become chronically infected, but children who have HBV infection are more likely to become a chronic carrier.

  • 乙型肝炎是病毒性肝炎之一,由乙型肝炎病毒引起。急性感染者可以全無癥狀,但偶然發生罕見致命的嚴重肝炎 。一般而言受乙型肝炎病毒感染的成人中大約九成以上完全痊癒,並不會成為帶原者 。但若然兒童受乙型肝炎病毒感染的話,復康後成為帶原者機會較高。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

  • The routes of Hepatitis B transmission are: Blood contact, perinatal transmission and sexual contact.

  • 乙型肝炎可以經血液、母嬰感染及性接觸傳播的疾病。

Vaccine? 疫苗?

  • A complete course of hepatitis B vaccination normally takes a total of three injections. The second dose is normally given one month after the first one, and the third dose is given 5 months after the second one.

  • 乙型肝炎疫苗一般需要注射三次,第一和第二次相隔一個月,第二和第三次注 射之間相隔五個月。


Hepatitis C 丙型肝炎

What is Hepatitis C? 什麼是丙型肝炎?

  • Hepatitis C is an infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Acute infection often goes unnoticed. A majority of acutely infected hepatitis C patients go on to develop chronic diseases. Some patients might develop liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, or even liver cancer.
  • 丙型肝炎是病毒性肝炎之一,由丙型肝炎病毒引起。急性丙型肝炎一般沒有病癥,但是發展為慢性肝炎的為數不少。丙型肝炎可導致肝臟纖維化,部分患者更可發展至肝硬化,甚至肝癌。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

  • Hepatitis C is transmitted by blood, for example, through contaminated blood products, and needle sharing among intravenous drug users.
  • 丙型肝炎是一種經血液傳播的疾病。輸入受感染的血液製品或吸毒者共用針筒,都可能會引致丙型肝炎。

Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?

  • In Hong Kong, as in many countries around the world, blood and blood products are screened in a stringent manner to prevent any potentially contaminated products from being used in patients. Currently no vaccine is available. Avoidance of needle sharing and the use of clean needles can protect drug users from acquiring HCV infection.
  • 香港和很多其它國家一樣,血液和血製品都經過嚴格的丙型肝炎篩選,藉以防止病毒傳播。到目前為止,並沒有疫苗可預防丙型肝炎感染。避免共用針筒和使用清潔的針具均可以減低吸毒者感染丙型肝炎。

Hepatitis E 戊型肝炎

What is Hepatitis E? 什麼是戊型肝炎?

Hepatitis E is an infection caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV is an RNA virus. Symptoms of Hepatitis E are similar to those of other viral hepatitis. It takes 3-6 weeks to recover and patients acquire lifelong immunity against HEV infection after recovery. Even though the mortality rate of Hepatitis E is below 1%, it can reach 20% among pregnant women in the third trimester.

戊型肝炎是病毒性肝炎之一,由戊型肝炎病毒引起。戊型肝炎病毒是一種RNA病毒,病徵與其他肝炎相似。一般患者大概三至六個星期後便能痊癒,復康後終生免疫。雖然戊型肝炎死亡率少於百份之一,但妊娠第三期的孕婦死亡率可高達百份之二十。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

Faeco-oral transmission through drinking contaminated water, eating contaminated food without proper cooking is the main route o0f infection. Foodborne transmission by eating raw or undercooked meat has also been suggested.

戊型肝炎主要由腸道傳染?: 通過飲用受污染的飲料或食用未經煮熟又受污染的食物。食物傳播 (進食生或未經煮熟的肉類) 是另一種有可能傳播戊型肝炎的途徑。

Vaccine? 疫苗?

There is no vaccine for Hepatitis E yet.

現時沒有戊型肝炎疫苗。


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