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False dawn on polio eradication 根除小兒麻痺症的虛幻曙光

(added on 2014/05/23)

©2014 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group

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On 5 May 2014, World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the international spread of wild poliovirus (WPV) is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The map shows the distribution of WPV cases between 2009 and 2014 and the status of ten countries, which are currently in polio emergency.

As shown in the map, there are ongoing polio cases in two regions - Central and Western Asia and a band of countries stretching from Nigeria to the Horn of Africa, in 2013 - 2014. Wild poliovirus circulating in Asia is mostly of Pakistani origin while polio endemic Nigeria remains the major reservoir of WPV in Africa.

Recent cases in Afghanistan, Iraq and Equatorial Guinea were found to be linked to travellers from Pakistan, Syrian Arabic Republic and Cameroon respectively, which are now considered as polio exporting countries (indicated by red footprint symbols) in the latest WHO statement. Footprint symbols in purple indicate that some neighbouring countries are also posing risk for future WPV exportations. As recommended by WHO, the states of 3 polio exporting countries should ensure that all residents and long term visitors to receive a dose of polio vaccine prior to their international travel.

Data for the map were obtained from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

2014年5月10日,世界衛生組織(世衛)宣佈脊髓灰質炎野株病毒的跨國散播為「國際關注的突發公共衛生事件」。地圖顯示2009至2014年間小兒痲痺症(脊髓灰質炎)的分佈及十個現正受小兒麻痺症威脅的國家之狀況。

依圖中所示,小兒麻痺症案例於2013至2014年間持續於兩個地區出現,即亞洲的中部及西部和由尼日尼亞延伸至東非非洲之角一帶的國家。大部分於亞洲地區流行的脊髓灰質炎野株病毒均源自巴基斯坦,而尼日尼亞則是非洲各國的脊髓灰質炎野株病毒的最主要來源。

最近於阿富汗、伊拉克及赤道畿內亞出現的小兒麻痺症個案都分別與來自巴基斯坦、敍利亞及喀麥隆的旅客相關,亦令這三個國家被世衛定為脊髓灰質炎野株病毒的輸出國〈以紅色腳印表示〉。另外,紫色腳印表示某部分相鄰國家於未來也有輸出脊髓灰質炎野株病毒的風險。根據世衛建議,該三個脊髓灰質炎野株病毒的輸出國須確保其居民及長期訪客於出國前接種小兒麻痺症疫苗。

地圖資料源自全球根除脊髓灰質炎行動。

Related Article

Poliomyelitis 小兒麻痺症

What is poliomyelitis? 什麼是小兒麻痺症?

Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by poliovirus, which can invade the central nervous system. Most infected people are asymptomatic, but some shows initial symptoms including fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, neck stiffness and pain in the limbs. Incubation period usually lasts for 7 to 14 days.

Most patients recover from the infection but some may develop irreversible paralysis, permanent disability and death.

小兒麻痺症(又稱脊髓灰質炎)是由脊髓灰質炎病毒引致的疾病,具高度傳染性。病毒可侵入中樞神經系統,引致嚴重併發症。大部分患者均沒有任何明顯病癥,少部分患者或出現發燒、疲倦、頭痛、嘔吐、頸部僵硬及四肢疼痛等癥狀。潛伏期一般為7至14天。

大部分患者均可自行痊癒,但部分嚴重病例有機會導致不可逆轉的癱瘓、永久傷殘或死亡。

How does it spread? 如何傳播?

Poliovirus is spread from person-to-person, mainly through faecal-oral route. The virus enters human body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine.

Children under five years old are the most susceptible group.

脊髓灰質炎病毒主要經糞口途徑人傳人,病毒經口進入人體,然後於腸臟繁殖。

小兒麻痺症主要影響五歲以下的兒童。

Vaccine? Prevention? 如何預防?

There is no cure for poliomyelitis, but vaccination is effective to prevent the disease. Oral polio vaccine and inactivated polio vaccine are two available polio vaccines in the world.

Children should follow the recommended schedule of local childhood immunization programme for vaccination. Parents should take extra precautions in the hygiene practices when caring for polio infected children, whose stool may contain the virus.

現時並沒有特效藥物治療小兒麻痺症,但接種疫苗可有效預防此病。小兒麻痺口服劑及滅活小兒麻痺疫苗均是兩種有效預防小兒麻痺症的疫苗。

兒童應根據當地的免疫接種計劃的時間表接種疫苗。另外,因患病兒童的糞便會帶有病毒,家長於照顧患者時須加倍注意衛生。


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