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(added on 2013/11/06)

At war with polio 禍不單行

©2013 SpatioEpi.com
Data source: WHO
Map created by CUHK SpatioEpi Group

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Despite global efforts on immunization, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases can still be found in Africa and Asia. WPV cases re-emerged in Somalia and Syria in 2013, where civil unrest was common in recent years and delivery of polio vaccines was impeded. As of the end of October, 180 WPV cases (yellow baby symbol in the Map) have been reported in Somalia, accounting for more than half of worldwide cases in 2013. Poliovirus has also spread to 3 neighbouring countries, including Ethiopia, South Sudan and Kenya.

Significant reduction in immunization coverage in Syria is represented by red country boundary lines. Coverage of the 3rd dose of polio vaccines in infants used to be more than 90% in Syria before 2011. As depicted by graduated colours, polio immunization coverage in 2012 in Somalia, Syrian Arab Republic and some countries in Central Africa is below 70%. While most of the WPV cases in 2013 in Syria were below 2 years of age, it is believed that this polio outbreak was associated with reduced immunization coverage in the past 2 years.

Elsewhere in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan, polio remains an endemic disease. Evidently, low vaccination coverage in polio non-endemic countries could lead to significant public health impacts. The war against polio is not over yet.

Data for the map were obtained from World Health Organization.

縱使全球共同努力為初生嬰兒接種疫苗,非洲及亞洲地區還有出現小兒麻痺症(脊髓灰質炎)的病例。依圖中黃色嬰兒符號所示,索馬里及敍利亞於2013年都再次出現小兒麻痺症的病例。兩國近年均政局不穩,戰事不斷,妨礙了小兒麻痺疫苗的接種。截止2013年10月底,索馬里共有180宗小兒麻痺症,佔同年超過一半的全球病例數目,而疫情更蔓延至鄰近三個國家,包括埃塞俄比亞、南蘇丹及肯亞。

敍利亞的紅色的國界標示其顯著下降的疫苗接種覆蓋率。2011年之前,敍利亞的小兒麻痺疫苗的接種率一直維持於超過百分之九十的水平。依圖中顏色所示,2012年小兒麻痺疫苗於索馬里、敍利亞及部分中非國家的覆蓋率少於百分之七十。敍利亞於2013年的小兒麻痺症的病例大部分是少於2歲的幼兒,因此這次爆發應該與近兩年下降的疫苗接種覆蓋率相關。

現時阿富汗、尼日尼亞及巴基斯坦仍是全球三個流行小兒麻痺症的國家。明顯地,低疫苗覆蓋率為這些國家帶來嚴重的公共衛生問題。人類和小兒麻痺症的戰爭還未結束。

地圖資料源自世界衛生組織。